1945

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1945 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1945
MCMXLV
Ab urbe condita2698
Armenian calendar1394
ԹՎ ՌՅՂԴ
Assyrian calendar6695
Baháʼí calendar101–102
Balinese saka calendar1866–1867
Bengali calendar1352
Berber calendar2895
British Regnal yearGeo. 6 – 10 Geo. 6
Buddhist calendar2489
Burmese calendar1307
Byzantine calendar7453–7454
Chinese calendar甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4641 or 4581
    — to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
4642 or 4582
Coptic calendar1661–1662
Discordian calendar3111
Ethiopian calendar1937–1938
Hebrew calendar5705–5706
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2001–2002
 - Shaka Samvat1866–1867
 - Kali Yuga5045–5046
Holocene calendar11945
Igbo calendar945–946
Iranian calendar1323–1324
Islamic calendar1364–1365
Japanese calendarShōwa 20
(昭和20年)
Javanese calendar1875–1876
Juche calendar34
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4278
Minguo calendarROC 34
民國34年
Nanakshahi calendar477
Thai solar calendar2488
Tibetan calendar阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
2071 or 1690 or 918
    — to —
阴木鸡年
(female Wood-Rooster)
2072 or 1691 or 919

1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1945th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 945th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1940s decade.

1945 marked the end of World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan. It is also the only year in which nuclear weapons have been used in combat.

Events[edit]

Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.

January[edit]

January 27 – The Soviet Red Army liberates Auschwitz.

February[edit]

February 19 – During the Battle of Iwo Jima, U.S. Marines land on the island.

March[edit]

April[edit]

April 7Japanese battleship Yamato explodes after persistent attacks from U.S. aircraft during the Battle of Okinawa.

May[edit]

May – Prague is liberated by the Red Army.
a black and white image of two Marines in their combat uniforms. One Marine is providing cover fire with his M1 Thompson submachinegun as the other with a Browning Automatic Rifle, prepares to break cover to move to a different position. There are bare sticks and rocks on the ground.
May – Marines of 1st Marine Division fighting on Okinawa.
May 8 – American soldiers fighting in the Pacific theater listen to radio reports of Victory in Europe Day.

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

August 9 – The mushroom cloud from the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air.
August 18 – Surrender of the Japanese Army in Central China (Memorial in Wuhan).

September[edit]

September 2 – Japan signs the Instrument of Surrender aboard the USS Missouri.

October[edit]

October 18Nuremberg trials begin, after Buchenwald closes.
October 24United Nations formed. Shown above is its flag (the modern version is slightly retouched).

November[edit]

December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

Births[edit]

Births
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Deaths[edit]

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

Blessed Marcel Callo

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

References[edit]

  1. ^ Girbig, Werner (1975). Six Months to Oblivion: The Eclipse of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force Over the Western Front, 1944/45. Schiffer Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-88740-348-4.
  2. ^ Duffy, C. Red Storm on the Reich: The Soviet March on Germany, 1945 Routledge 1991 ISBN 0-415-22829-8. Page 67
  3. ^ Abraham J. Peck (1997). "The Agony of the Łódź Ghetto, 1941–1944". The Chronicle of the Łódź Ghetto, 1941–1944 by Lucjan Dobroszycki, and The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington D.C. The Simon Wiesenthal Center. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  4. ^ "Penicillin Pills May Replace Injection". The Milwaukee Sentinel. February 16, 1945. Retrieved May 22, 2012.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "SS General von Steuben [+1945]". WreckSite. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
  6. ^ "Guinness World Records Website". guinnessworldrecords.com. December 13, 2016.
  7. ^ Guinness Book of World Records. 2008. p. 137.
  8. ^ Year by Year – 1945. History International.
  9. ^ Nohlen, Dieter; Stöver, Philip, eds. (2010). Elections in Europe: A data handbook. Baden-Baden: Nomos. p. 1678. ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7.
  10. ^ Mayne, Alan James (1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  11. ^ "1945". A WW2 Timeline. Worldwar-2.net. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  12. ^ Smythe, John (1967). Bolo Whistler: The Life of General Sir Lashmer Whistler. London: Muller.
  13. ^ MacDonogh, Giles (2007). After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation. New York: Basic Books. p. 93.
  14. ^ Duncan, George R. "Massacres and Atrocities of World War II". Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  15. ^ "Central Europe Campaign – 522nd Field Artillery Battalion". Retrieved January 12, 2015. Jewish prisoners from the outer Dachau camps were marched to Dachau, and then 70 miles south. Many of the Jewish marchers weighed less than 80 pounds. Shivering in their tattered striped uniforms, the "skeletons" marched 10 to 15 hours a day, passing more than a dozen Bavarian towns. If they stopped or fell behind, the SS guards shot them and left their corpses along the road.
  16. ^ "Search Results". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  17. ^ "Liberatione". Lib.usc.edu. May 4, 1945. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  18. ^ "Befrielsen 1945 – Tidslinje". Befrielsen1945.dk. January 2, 2012. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  19. ^ Waller, Derek (September 25, 2010). "U-Boats that Surrendered". u-boat.net. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  20. ^ "Hungary: Recovery of Crown Jewels 1945". Retrieved December 17, 2008.
  21. ^ Milcic, Allen. "Croatian Axis Forces in WWII". Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  22. ^ Dizdar, Zdravko (December 2005). "Prilog istraživanju problema Bleiburga i križnih putova (u povodu 60. obljetnice)" [An addition to the research of the problem of Bleiburg and the Way of the Cross (dedicated to their 60th anniversary)]. The Review of Senj (in Croatian). Senj, Croatia: City Museum Senj; Senj Museum Society. 32 (1): 117–193. ISSN 0582-673X. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  23. ^ Colin F. Baxter; John Martin Carroll, eds. (2007). The American Military Tradition: From Colonial Times to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 181. ISBN 9780742544284.
  24. ^ Bethell, Nicholas (1974). The Last Secret. London. ISBN 9780465038138.
  25. ^ Palaich, Michael (1991). "Bleiburg Tragedy". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
  26. ^ a b c d e f "1945 – The Decision to Drop the Bomb". NuclearFiles. Archived from the original on April 6, 2010.
  27. ^ Mohamed, Jama (2002). "'The Evils of Locust Bait': Popular Nationalism during the 1945 Anti-Locust Control Rebellion in Colonial Somaliland". Past & Present. 174 (174): 184–216. doi:10.1093/past/174.1.184. ISSN 0031-2746. JSTOR 3600720.
  28. ^ "1945: Labour landslide buries Churchill". BBC News. April 5, 2005.
  29. ^ "USS Indianapolis sinking: 'You could see sharks circling'". BBC News. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  30. ^ Pike, John. "The Soviet Army Offensive: Manchuria, 1945". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  31. ^ Angier, R. B.; Boothe, J. H.; Hutchings, B. L.; Mowat, J. H.; Semb, J.; Stokstad, E. L. R.; Subbarow, Y.; Waller, C. W.; Cosulich, D. B.; Fahrenbach, M. J.; Hultquist, M. E.; Kuh, E.; Northey, E. H.; Seeger, D. R.; Sickels, J. P.; Smith Jr, J. M. (1945). "Synthesis of a Compound Identical with the L. Casei Factor Isolated from Liver". Science. 102 (2644): 227–28. Bibcode:1945Sci...102..227A. doi:10.1126/science.102.2644.227. PMID 17778509.
  32. ^ Hoffbrand, A. V.; Weir, D. G. (2001). "The history of folic acid". British Journal of Haematology. 113 (3): 579–589. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.02822.x. PMID 11380441. S2CID 22925228.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945-1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24308-5.
  34. ^ "Amery sentenced to death: "A self-confessed traitor."". The Times. No. 50312. November 29, 1945. p. 2.
  35. ^ "75th Anniversary of World Bank Articles of Agreement Ratification". World Bank. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
  36. ^ "Discovery of Promethium". Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review. 36 (1). 2003. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
  37. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016".
  38. ^ William D. Rubinstein; Michael Jolles; Hilary L. Rubinstein (February 22, 2011). The Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo-Jewish History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 868. ISBN 978-1-4039-3910-4.
  39. ^ Chase's ... Calendar of Events. Contemporary Books. 2003. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-07-139098-9.
  40. ^ Geoff Nicholson (1991). Big Noises: Rock Guitar in the 1990s. Quartet. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-7043-0145-0.
  41. ^ Profile of highlife legend Nana Ampadu
  42. ^ Colin Larkin, ed. (1997). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music (Concise ed.). Virgin Books. p. 666/7. ISBN 1-85227-745-9.
  43. ^ Ruggieri, Melissa. "Procol Harum singer Gary Brooker, the voice of 'A Whiter Shade of Pale,' dies at 76". USA Today. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  44. ^ Dagnino, Maruja. "Lali Armengol Argemi". In Transparencia Venezuela (ed.). 20 mujeres venezolanas del siglo XX (PDF). pp. 68–71.
  45. ^ Anon (2017). "Henderson, Dr Richard". Who's Who. ukwhoswho.com (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.19818. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) (subscription required)
  46. ^ "Patrick Modiano". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  47. ^ "Khaleda Zia". Britannica Presents 100 Women Trailblazers. February 25, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  48. ^ "Obituary: John McAfee, antivirus software designer, dies aged 75". The Times. June 24, 2021. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  49. ^ "Serial killer Dennis Nilsen dies in prison aged 72". The Guardian. May 12, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2022.
  50. ^ David J. Goldman (2014). Jewish Sports Stars; Athletic Heroes Past and Present
  51. ^ "Lemmy, Motörhead frontman – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. December 29, 2015. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  52. ^ "Noel Redding". The Guardian. May 15, 2003. Retrieved May 4, 2022.
  53. ^ "Vernon Wells". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. 2014. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014.
  54. ^ Alexander Stirling Calder
  55. ^ Kimmelman, Benedict B. (September–October 1987). "The Example Of Private Slovik". American Heritage Magazine. 38 (6). Retrieved October 5, 2012.
  56. ^ "One day they simply weren't there any more..." (PDF). anne frank house. March 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
  57. ^ Kaplan, Alice (2000). The Collaborator: The Trial and Execution of Robert Brasillach. University of Chicago Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-226-42414-9.
  58. ^ "Preview unavailable". ProQuest.
  59. ^ "Casualty Details | CWGC". www.cwgc.org. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  60. ^ Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman
  61. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War: 1939–1945. London: Allen Lane. p. 750. ISBN 978-0-7139-9742-2.
  62. ^ Wallace, Sam (January 25, 2020). "The imperishable story of Julius Hirsch: the great goalscorer murdered at Auschwitz who adorns Stamford Bridge mural". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022.
  63. ^ ENNETH J. ALFORD 1881 EN - 1945 EN Composer
  64. ^ Ishii Kikujirō Japanese statesman and diplomat
  65. ^ HARDEEN DEAD, 69; HOUDINI'S BROTHER; Illusionist, Escape Artist, a Founder of Magician's Guild --Gave Last Show May 29
  66. ^ Boris Galerkin
  67. ^ Harry Hillman Taken by Death, Cumberland News, August 10, 1945
  68. ^ Firoz Alam (October 1, 2009). Subhas Chandra Bose. Sahni Publications. p. 121. ISBN 978-81-7564-242-3.
  69. ^ Fildes, P. (February 13, 1956). "Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, 1858-1945". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 2: 237–247. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1956.0016. S2CID 73380545.
  70. ^ "Plutarco Elías Calles" (in Spanish). Biografias y Vidas. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  71. ^ Stevens, Halsey. 2018. "Béla Bartók: Hungarian Composer". Encyclopædia Britannica online (accessed 27 September 2018).
  72. ^ "Dr. W.B. Cannon, 73, Neurologist, Dead. Harvard Psychology Professor for 36 Years Noted for His Work on Traumatic Shock Became Professor in 1906". New York Times. October 2, 1945. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
  73. ^ Felix Salten Austrian novelist
  74. ^ Felicija Bortkevičienė (in Lithuanian)
  75. ^ Hugh Fordin, Stephen Sondheim (1995). Getting to Know Him: A Biography of Oscar Hammerstein II. Da Capo Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-306-80668-1.
  76. ^ [Sinclair, Sir Edwyn Sinclair Alexander-, of Freswick (1865–1945)]
  77. ^ Billy Altman, Laughter's Gentle Soul: The Life of Robert Benchley. (New York City: W. W. Norton, 1997. ISBN 0-393-03833-5) Pages 352-362
  78. ^ Inge, Tonette Bond. Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, ed. Charles Reagan Wilson and William R. Ferris. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. Page 884.
  79. ^ Jimmy Quinn
  80. ^ Siegman, Joseph (2020). Jewish Sports Legends: The International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9781496222121.
  81. ^ Axelrod, Alan (2006), Patton: A Biography, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 168–9, ISBN 978-1-4039-7139-5
  82. ^ Theodore Dreiser Recalled. Clemson University Press. 2017. p. 311. ISBN 9781942954446.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ian Buruma. Year Zero: A History of 1945 (Penguin Press; 2013) 368 pages; covers liberation, revenge, decolonization, and the rise of the United Nations. excerpt
  • International News Service, It Happened In 1945 The Essential Year Book (1946)
  • Keith Lowe. Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II (2012) excerpt and text search
  • McDannald, A. H. ed. The Americana Annual 1946 (1946) events of 1945 online; encyclopedia yearbook global coverage in 950pp
  • Walter Yust, ed. 10 Eventful Years, 1937 – 1946 Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1947, 4 vol., encyclopedia yearbook online